Hypertension:common disorder most of the time patient is asymptomatic but characterized by high blood pressure greater than 140/90.The most common high blood pressure is essential Hypertension. There is no major cause. But the risk factors are high sodium intake, obesity, family history, high cholesterol, adrenal disorders such as Cushing’s syndrome, chronic glomerulonephritis,toxemia of pregnancy etc. Hypertension is higher in men than women, and more in black than white. Monitor for lightheartedness, subocciptal headaches, fatigue, palpitations. With high blood pressure the arterial walls are thickened, inelastic, resistant to blood flow, due to this resistance the left ventricle is now hypertrophic and distended in an attempt to maintain circulation. If there is not enough circulation to the arteries may cause angina or myocardial infarction. All these can lead to CHF.Let us tall about CHF next time.
But how can we treat Hypertension?.
The treatment of Hypertension is very important in order to prevent stroke, maintain proper circulation and good health. It is a critical component of good health.Prevention of Hypertension is the key to preventing heart attack, heart failure and stroke.
So what do we do?.
Lifestyle changes such as stop smoking, healthy eating,physical exercise ,stop sedentary lifestyle,loss weight. If you are diagnosed with hypertension you will need medication to help you but continue with your lifestyle changes and take your medication as prescribed by your doctor. Have blood pressure machine at home.You can purchase these automatic blood pressure machines @ amazon.com. The prices are reasonable.
Questions and answers.
There are medications use to treat hypertension such as Calcium channel blockers for example Verapamil(Isoptin SR).Action is that it blocks the influx of calcium which causes decreased contraction of myocardium as well as the smooth muscle relaxation. Adverse effects hypotension if given too fast intravenously. Diuretics, Beta blockers, Alpha adrenergic blockers for example Minipress(Prazosin), Angiotensin – converting enzymes (ACE) inhibitor and combination of medications etc. If you are on diuretics watch out for your potassium because some diuretics will delete potassium. Pay attention and listen to your body.
(1)Which lifestyle changes will have effect on Hypertension?.
(A) Drink lots of margaritas with ice.It taste so good.
(B)Healthy diet,exercise,no smoking, low sodium intake, and weight loss.
( C) Smoke cigarettes one pack a day.
(D) Do not exercise, it is not good for your body.
Correct answer is B.
Rationale: There are critical choices that can help you prevent hypertension and that is number B
(2) Blood pressure of 140/90 is considered?.
(A) This is normal blood pressure.
(B) This is normal for my patient.
(C )Patient is asymptomatic.
(D) This is abnormal blood pressure.
Correct answer D.
(3 )What is the advantages of using combination of medications to treat Hypertension?.
(A) Hypertension need a combination of therapy all the time.
(B) Hypertension is high blood pressure.
(C) Some people like combination of medications .
(D) With the treatment of hypertension resistant, mineralcorticoids can be very effective.
Correct answer D.
(4) The nurse plans care for a patient diagnosed with an acute myocardial infarction. An appropriate nursing diagnosis would be. A potential for alteration in cardiac output secondary to what?.
(A) Ventricular dysrhythmia TGV (transportation of the great vessels) has reduced the efficiency of the heart, which is common after myocardial infarction.
(B) The heart is compromised.
(C) Serious problem.
(D ) Noncompliance problem.
Correct answer A.
(5) The nurse is to administer Verapamil (Isoptin SR) to the patient. Before administering the Verapamil the nurse should check.
( A) Heart rate.
(B) Blood pressure.
(D) BP, HR,RA.
Correct answer A
Rationale: Verapamil is indicated for the treatment of super ventricular tachycardia. So the patient heart rate should be checked prior to administration.
(6) The patient is a 66years old man with Uncontrolled high blood pressure. Hydralazine 10mg IV was given in Emergency department. The doctor orders Capoten 25mg po to be given Bid(Captopril)The most appropriate nursing action before giving the medication is?.
(A) To check blood pressure.
(B) Check heart rate.
(C) Assess airway breathing and circulation.
(D) Check only respiration.
Correct answer A.
Rationale:Because Captopril is an antihypertensive medication which necessitates the blood pressure to be assessed prior to administration.