It is the process in which while oxygen is going in and carbon dioxide is going out.It is the molecular exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide within the body’s tissues from the lungs to cellular oxidation processes. The rate varies with age and condition of the person.

Certain types of breathing patterns commonly referred to as respiration are Biot’s respiration, Cheyne- stroke respiration and kussmaul’s respiration.


40 to 50bpm newborns.

Older children 20 to 25 bpm.

15 to 20bpm teenagers and adults.

Adult rate of 25 is accelerated but

12bpm is abnormally slow breath per minute.


Eupnea 16 to 20 normal.

Tachypnea greater than 35.

Bradypnea less than 10.

Apnea: Zero breathing.

Hyperpnea : 16 to 20 anxiety or pain related. Kussmaul’s: greater than 35, maybe slow or normal.

Cheyne – stroke Variable. Crescendo to decrescendo pattern caused by alteration in acid base status,underlying metabolic problem or neurcerebral insult .

Biot’s variable: Is a period of apnea and shallow breathing.

Apneustic:Increased inspiratory time with short grunting expiratory time,seemingly CNS lesions of the respiratory center.

Cheyne-stroke is a period of Apnea, Increase,Decrease then Apnea.

From Weilitz PB: Pocket guideto respiratory care.St Louis,1991,Mosby.

COVID19 respiration mouth. PEXEL.COM
My scratchy diagram of respiratory pattern.

Published by edochie99

A Registered Nurse with over twenty years of hospital experience, an author with Masters Degree in Nursing,also Bachelor Degree in Nursing,graduated in 1996 from USC,University of Southern California.MSN in 2009 University of Phoenix.

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