Lung malignant is a Pulmonary cancer (Malignant)most often associated to Cigarette smoking is over 50% of lung cancer patients. Lung cancers have been associated with repeated exposure to substances that cause tissue irritation or inflammation.

Lung cancer develops most often from chronically diseased lung or scarred.

Before cancer is detected it has metastasized in most cases. So metastasis comes before the primary lesions in the lung are detected.


History of Cigarette Smoking:

  1. Cigarette smoking is described as the number of packs smoked for how many years.You will multiple the number of packs smoked in a day by the number of years smoked.

2. Obtain information on frequency of smoking, intensity of Cigarette smoking and the duration.

3. Exposure to certain industrial substances such as arsenic, acronitile, asbestos and certain organic chemicals, Chromium, beryllium, Chloromethyl ether, Mustard gas,vinyl chloride,ionizing radiation, uranium petroleum, nickle.



●Persistent coughing or change in cough pattern.

●Change in respiratory pattern.

● Dyspnea.

● Clubbing.

● Blood streaked Sputum.

●Purulent Sputum or rust colored.

● Hemoptysis.

●Chest pain or tightness.

● Recurring episodes of pleural effusion.

●Or repeated Pneumonia or bronchitis.

● Wheezing.

●Weight loss.


Bronchoscopy is done to confirm that there is a lung cancer.

Fiberoptic Bronchoscope is inserted through the trachea that goes into the bronchus.Tissue samples from visible tumors or to perform brushing and washing of peripheral lesions.

Sputum collection in 3 consecutive days sample.

Transbronchial needle biopsy with a bronchoscope will be used to collect node tissue when hilar or mediastinal lymph nodes are involved Percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy is used to biopsy the lesions that are on fluoroscopy usually when they are closed on the lung 🫁surface.

Excision of lesion is done through small incisions. Lasers or mechanical staplers are usually used with this procedure.

Also video assisted Thoracoscopy or Thoracotomy will be useful when small diagnostic wedge excisions is performed. STAGING TECHNIQUES OF LUNG CANCER.

This include Lateral Chest Xray to show tumors especially on the edge of the lung.

CT Scan with contrast will enhance findings, and MRI will be able to differentiate the underlying mass from inflammation or atelectasis.

In case there is invasion of the Chest wall MRI will be used to find out the connection of visceral pleura and Parietal pleura.

CT scanning can also be used to show malignant pleural effusion which means it cannot be treated or remedied by surgical intervention.

But before decisions are made about inoperable, malignant cells should be identified in the pleural fluid.

Thoracentesis : If there is evidence of pleural effusion thoracentesis is performed upto 1000ml will be removed.

If patient has lung cancer the pleural effusion will be occurring constantly.

Thoracotomy and Mediastinoscopy are also useful tools for evaluation and examination of lung cancer.Follow doctor orders, ask questions when in doubt.


●10% of patients are asymptotic and are identified on routine Xray.

●75% have persistent cough.

●Shortness of breath and unilateral wheezing.

● 50% have hemoptysis.

There is Lung Cancer Tumor Node Metastasis.( TNM) Classifications.Review textbook for more detail information and explanations.

Stage Grouping of Cancer.

Stage 0.

Stage 1.

Stage 11.

Stage 111A.

Stage 111B.

Stage IV.

Your doctor will explain to you how you are doing and what needs to be done .Do not hesitate to ask questions. N Okeke RN BSN, MSN.

Published by edochie99

A Registered Nurse with over twenty years of hospital experience, an author with Masters Degree in Nursing,also Bachelor Degree in Nursing,graduated in 1996 from USC,University of Southern California.MSN in 2009 University of Phoenix.

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